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Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Rabbinic Judaism. Theologically , it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah , both Written and Oral , as literally revealed by God on Mount Sinai and faithfully transmitted ever since. Orthodox Judaism therefore advocates a strict observance of Jewish Law, or halakha , which is to be interpreted and determined only according to traditional methods and in adherence to the continuum of received precedent through the ages. It regards the entire halakhic system as ultimately grounded in immutable revelation, essentially beyond external and historical influence. More than any theoretical issue, obeying the dietary , purity , ethical, and other laws of halakha is the hallmark of Orthodoxy. Other key doctrines include belief in a future bodily resurrection of the dea divine reward and punishment for the righteous and the sinners, the Election of Israel as a people bound by a covenant with Go and an eventual Messianic Age ruled by a salvific Messiah -King who will restore the Temple in Jerusalem.
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Only a handful of Secessionist, Austrittorthodoxcommunities were established in the Reich; almost everyone remained as Communal Orthodox, Gemeindeortodoxwithin Liberal mother congregations. The Communal Orthodox argued that their approach was both true to Jewish unity, and decisive in maintaining public standards of observance and traditional education in Liberal communities, while the Secessionists viewed them as hypocritical middle-of-the-roaders.
The fierce conflicts in Hungary and Germany, and the emergence of distinctly Orthodox communities and ideologies, were the exception rather than the rule in Central and Western Europe.
France, Britain, Bohemia, Austria and other countries saw both a virtual disappearance of observance and a lack of serious interest in bridging Judaism and modernity.
The official rabbinate remained technically traditional, at least in the default sense of not introducing ideological change. Even Rabbi Solomon Klein of Colmarthe leader of Alsatian conservatives who partook in the castigation of Zecharias Frankel, had the instrument in his community. Nonetheless they were content to remain within an orthodox congregational framework - and introduced considerable synagogue reforms. The much belated pace of modernization in Russia, Congress Poland and the Romanian principalities, where harsh discrimination and active persecution of the Jews continued untildelayed the crisis of traditional society for decades.
Old-style education in the heder and yeshiva remained the norm, retaining Hebrew as the language of the elite and Yiddish as the vernacular. The defining fault-line of Eastern European Jews was between the Hasidim and the Misnagdic reaction against them.
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Reform attempts by the Czar 's government, like the school modernization under Max Lilienthal or the foundation of rabbinical seminaries and the mandating of communities to appoint clerks known as "official rabbis"all had little influence. Communal autonomy and the rabbinic courts' jurisdiction were abolished inbut economic and social seclusion remained, ensuring the authority of Jewish institutions and traditions de facto.
Though the Eastern European Haskalah challenged the traditional establishment - unlike its western counterpart, no acculturation process turned it irrelevant; it flourished from the s until the s - the latter's hegemony over the vast majority was self-evident.
The leading rabbis maintained the old conception of communal unity: Inwhen an Orthodox party in Galicia appealed for the right of secession, the Netziv and other Russian rabbis declared it forbidden and contradicting the idea of Israel's oneness.
While slow, change was by no means absent. In the s and s, anticipating a communal disintegration like the one in the west, moderate maskilic rabbis like Yitzchak Yaacov Reines and Yechiel Michel Pines called for inclusion of secular studies in the heder s and yeshiva s, a careful modernization, and an ecumenical attempt to form a consensus on necessary adaptation of halakha to novel times. Their initiative was thwarted by a combination of strong anti-traditional invective on behalf of the radical, secularist maskilim and conservative intransigence from the leading rabbis, especially during the bitter polemic which erupted after Moshe Leib Lilienblum 's call for a reconsideration of Talmudic strictures.
Reines, Pines and their associates would gradually form the nucleus of Religious Zionismwhile their conservative opponents would eventually adopt the epithet Haredim then, and also much later, still a generic term for the observant and the pious. The attitude toward Jewish nationalism, particularly Zionismand its nonobservant if not staunchly secularist leaders and partisans, was the key question facing the traditionalists of Eastern Europe.
Closely intertwined were issues of modernization in general: As noted by Joseph Salmon, the future religious Zionists organized in the Mizrahi since were not only supportive of the national agenda per se, but deeply motivated by criticism of the prevalent Jewish society, a positive reaction to modernity and a willingness to tolerate nonobservance while affirming traditional faith and practice.
Their proto- Haredi opponents sharply rejected all of the former positions and espoused staunch conservatism, which idealized existing norms. Any illusion that differences could be blanded and a united observant pro-Zionist front would be formed, were dashed between an as both the Eastern European nationalist intellectuals and Theodor Herzl himself revealed an uncompromising secularist agenda, forcing traditionalist leaders to pick sides.
Inthe anti-Zionist pamphlet Or la-Yesharimendorsed by many Russian and Polish rabbis, largely demarcated the lines between the proto- Haredi majority and the Mizrahi minority, and terminated dialogue; inwhen the 10th World Zionist Congress voted in favour of propagating non-religious cultural work and education, a large segment of the Mizrahi seceded and joined the anti-Zionists.
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InEastern European proto- Haredi elements formed the Knesseth Israel party, a modern framework created in recognition of the deficiencies of existing institutions. It dissipated within a year. German Neo-Orthodoxy, in the meantime, developed a keen interest in the traditional Jewish masses of Russian and Poland; if at the past they were considered primitive, a disillusionment with emancipation and enlightenment made many young assimilated German Orthodox youth embark on journeys to East European yeshivotin search of authenticity.
While the Germans were a tiny minority in comparison to the Eastern Europeans, their modern education made them a prominent elite in the new organization, which strove to provide a comprehensive response to world Jewry's challenges in a strictly observant spirit. The Agudah immediately formed its Council of Torah Sages as supreme rabbinic leadership body.
Many ultra-traditionalist elements in Eastern Europe, like the Belz and Lubavitch Hasidim, refused to join, viewing the movement as a dangerous innovation; and the organized Orthodox in Hungary rejected it as well, especially after it did not affirm a commitment to communal secession in In the Interwar perio sweeping secularization and acculturation deracinated old Jewish society in Eastern Europe.
The October Revolution granted civil equality and imposed anti-religious persecutions, radically transforming Russian Jewry within a decade; the lifting of formal discrimination also strongly affected the Jews of independent Polan Lithuania and other states.
Eastern European Orthodoxy, whether Agudah or Mizrahi, always preferred cultural and educational independence to communal secession, and maintained strong ties and self-identification with the general Jewish public.
American Jewry of the 19th century, small and lacking traditional institutions or strong rabbinic presence due its immigrant-based nature, was a hotbed of religious innovation.
Voluntary congregations, rather than corporate communities, were the norm; separation of church and state, and dynamic religiosity of - ektaparksville.com Protestant model, shaped synagogue life. In the midth century, Reform Judaism spread rapidly, advocating a formal relinquishment of traditions very few in the secularized, open environment observed anyhow; the United States would be derisively named the Treife Medinaor "Profane Country", in Yiddish.
Conservative elements, concerned mainly with public standards of observance in critical fields like marriage, rallied around Isaac Leeser. Lacking a rabbinic ordination and little knowledgeable by European standards, Leeser was an ultra-traditionalist in his American milieu.
In he introduced the words "Orthodox" and "Orthodoxy" into the American Jewish discourse, in the sense of opposing Reform;  while admiring Samson Raphael HirschLeeser was an even stauncher proponent of Zecharias Frankelwhom he considered the "leader of the Orthodox party" at a time when Positive-Historical and Orthodox positions were barely discernible from each other to most observers inLeeser defended Frankel in the polemic instigated by Hirsch.
Indeed, a broad non-Reform, relatively traditional camp slowly coalesced as the minority within American Jewry; while strict in relation to their progressive opponents, they served a nonobservant public and instituted thorough synagogue reforms - omission of piyyutim from the liturgy, English-language sermons and secular education for the clergy were the norm in most,  and many Orthodox synagogues in America did not partition men and women.
They variously termed their ideology, which was never consistent and mainly motivated by rejection of Reform, as "Enlightened Orthodoxy" or " Conservative Judaism ". The latter term would only gradually assume a clearly distinct meaning.
The UOR frowned upon English-language sermons, secular education and acculturation in general. Eventually, its students rebelled indemanding a modern rabbinic training much like that of their peers in JTS.
Only in the postwar era, did the vague traditional coalition come to a definite end. During and after the Holocausta new wave of strictly observant refugees arrived from Eastern and Central Europe. They often regarded even the UOR as too lenient and Americanized. Alarmed by the enticing American environment, Kotler turned his institution into an enclave, around which an entire community slowly evolved.
It was very different from his prewar yeshiva at KletskPolan the students of which were but a segment of the general Jewish population and mingled with the rest of the population.
Lakewood pioneered the homogeneous, voluntary and enclavist model of postwar Haredi communities, which were independent entities with their own developing subculture. Concurrently, the younger generation in the JTS and the Rabbinical Assembly demanded greater clarity, theological unambiguity and halakhic independence from the Orthodox veto on serious innovations - infor example, the RA yielded to such pressures and shelved its proposal for a solution to the agunah predicament.
Inthe Conservatives signaled their break with Orthodox halakhic authorities, with the acceptance of a far-reaching legal decision, which allowed one to drive to the synagogue and to use electricity on Sabbath.
Between the ultra-Orthodox and Conservatives, Modern Orthodoxy in America also coalesced, becoming less a generic term and more a distinct movement. Its leader in the postwar era, Rabbi Joseph B.
Soloveitchikleft Agudas Israel to adopt both pro-Zionist positions and a positive, if reserved, attitude toward Western culture. A definite and conclusive credo was never formulated in Judaism; the very question whether it contains any equivalent of dogma is a matter of intense scholarly controversy. Some researchers attempted to argue that the importance of daily practice and punctilious adherence to halakha Jewish law relegated theoretical issues to an ancillary status.
Others dismissed this view entirely, citing the debates in ancient rabbinic sources which castigated various heresies with little reference to observance. However, while lacking a uniform doctrine, Orthodox Judaism is basically united in affirming several core beliefs, disavowal of which is considered major blasphemy.
As in other cts, Orthodox positions reflect the mainstream of traditional Rabbinic Judaism through the ages. Attempts to codify these beliefs were undertaken by several medieval authorities, including Saadia Gaon and Joseph Albo.
Each composed his own creed. Yet the 13 principles expounded by Maimonides in his Commentary on the Mishnaauthored in the s, eventually proved the most widely accepted. Various points - for example, Albo listed merely three fundamentals, and did not regard the Messiah as a key tenet - the exact formulation, and the status of disbelievers whether mere errants or heretics who can no longer be considered part of the People Israel were contested by many of Maimonides' contemporaries and later sages.
Many of their detractors did so from a maximalist position, arguing that the entire corpus of the Torah and the sayings of ancient sages was of canonical stature, not just certain selected beliefs. But in recent centuries, the 13 Principles became standard, and are considered binding and cardinal by Orthodox authorities in a virtually universal manner.
During the Middle Ages, two systems of thought competed for theological primacy, their advocates promoting them as explanatory foundations for observance of the Law. One was the rationalist-philosophic school, which endeavored to present all commandments as serving higher moral and ethical purposes, while the other was the mystical tradition, exemplified in Kabbalahwhich assigned each rite with a role in the hidden dimensions of reality.
Sheer obedience, without much thought and derived from faithfulness to one's community and ancestry, was believed fit only for the common people, while the educated classes chose either of the two schools. In the modern era, the prestige of both suffered severe blows, and "naive faith" became popular.
At a time when excessive contemplation in matters of belief was associated with secularization, luminaries such as Yisrael Meir Kagan stressed the importance of simple, unsophisticated commitment to the precepts passed down from the Beatified Sages.
This is still the standard in the ultra-Orthodox world. In more progressive Orthodox circles, attempts were made to formulate philosophies that would confront modern sensibilities.
Notable examples are the Hegelian -Kabbalistic theology of Abraham Isaac Kookwho viewed history as progressing toward a messianic redemption in a dialectic fashion which required the strengthening of heretical forces, or the existentialist thought of Joseph B. Soloveitchikwho was deeply influenced by Neo-Kantian ideals. On the fringes of Orthodoxy, thinkers who were at least and according to their critics, only sociologically part of it, ventured toward radical models.
These, like the apopathic views of Yeshayahu Leibowitz or the feminist interpretation of Tamar Rosshad little to no influence on the mainstream.
The basic tenets of Orthodoxy, drawn from ancient sources like the Talmud as well as later sages, prominently and chiefly include the attributes of God in Judaism : one and indivisible, preceding all creation which he alone brought into being, eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, absolutely incorporeal, and beyond human reason. This basis is evoked in many foundational texts, and is repeated often in the daily prayers, such as in Judaism's creed-like Shema Yisrael : "Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One.
Maimonides delineated this understanding of a monotheisticpersonal God in the opening six articles of his thirteen. The six concern God's status as the sole creator, his oneness, his impalpability, that he is first and last, that God alone, and no other being, may be worshipped, and that he is omniscient.
The supremacy of God of Israel is even applied on non-Jews, who, according to most rabbinic opinions, are banned from the worship of other deities, though they are allowed to " associate " lower divine beings in their faith in God this notion was mainly used to allow contact with Christiansproving they were not idolaters with whom any business dealings and the like are forbidden.
The utter imperceptibility of God, considered as beyond human reason and only reachable through what he chose to reveal, was emphasized among others in the ancient ban on making any image of him. Maimonides and virtually all sages in his time and since then also stressed that the creator is incorporeal, lacking "any semblance of a body"; while almost taken for granted since the Middle Ages, Maimonides and his contemporaries noted that anthropomorphic conceptions of God were quite common in their time.
The medieval tension between God's transcendence and equanimityon the one hand, and his contact and interest in his creation, on the other, found its most popular resolution in the esoteric Kabbalah.
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The Kabbalists asserted that while God himself is beyond the universe, he progressively unfolds into the created realm via a series of inferior emanations, or sefiroteach a refraction of the perfect godhead. While widely received, this system also proved contentious and some authorities lambasted it as a threat to God's unity. The defining doctrine of Orthodox Judaism is the belief that the Torah "Teaching" or "Law"both the Written scripture of the Pentateuch and the Oral tradition explicating it, was revealed by God to Moses on Mount Sinai, and that it was transmitted faithfully from Sinai in an unbroken chain ever since.
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One of the foundational texts of rabbinic literature is the list opening the Ethics of the Fathersenumerating the sages who received and passed on the Torah, from Moses through Joshuathe Eldersand Prophetsand then onward until Hillel the Elder and Shammai. The basic philosophy of Orthodoxy is that the body of revelation is total and complete; its interpretation and application under new circumstances, required of scholars in every generation, is conceived as an act of inferring and elaborating based on already prescribed methods, not of innovation or addition.
One clause in the Jerusalem Talmud asserts that anything which a veteran disciple shall teach was already given at Sinai; and a story in the Babylonian Talmud claims that upon seeing the immensely intricate deduction of future Rabbi Akiva in a vision, Moses himself was at loss, until Akiva proclaimed that everything he teaches was handed over to Moses. The Written and Oral Torah are believed to be intertwined and mutually reliant, for the latter is a source to many of the divine commandments, and the text of the Pentateuch is seen as incomprehensible in itself.
God's will may only be surmised by appealing to the Oral Torah revealing the text's allegorical, anagogicalor tropological meaning, not by literalist reading. Lacunae in received tradition or disagreements between early sages are attributed to disruptions, especially persecutions which caused to that "the Torah was forgotten in Israel" - according to rabbinic lore, these eventually compelled the legists to write down the Oral Law in the Mishna and Talmud.
Yet, the wholeness of the original divine message, and the reliability of those who transmitted it through the ages, are axiomatic. One of the primary intellectual exercises of Torah scholars is to locate discrepancies between Talmudic or other passages, and then demonstrate by complex logical steps presumably proving each passage referred to a slightly different situation etc. Modernist understandings of revelation as a subjective, humanly-conditioned experience are rejected by the Orthodox mainstream,  though some thinkers at the end of the liberal wing did try to promote such views, finding virtually no acceptance from the establishment.
An important ramification of Torah min HaShamayim in modern times is the reserved, and often totally rejectionist, attitude of Orthodoxy toward the historical-critical method, particularly higher criticism of the Bible. A refusal by rabbis to significantly employ such tools in determining halakhic decisions, and insistence on traditional methods and the need for consensus and continuity with past authorities, is a demarcation line separating the most liberal-leaning Orthodox rabbinic circles from the most right-wing non-Orthodox ones.
While the Sinaitic event is perceived as the supreme and binding act of revelation, it is not the only one. Rabbinic tradition acknowledges matter handed down from the Prophets, as well as announcements from God later on.
Secret lore or Kabbalahallegedly revealed to illustrious figures in the past and passed on through elitist circles, is widely albeit not universally esteemed.
While not a few prominent rabbis deplored Kabbalahand considered it a late forgery, most generally accepted it as legitimate. However, its status in determining normative halakhic decision-making, which is binding for the entire community and not just intended for spiritualists who voluntarily adopt kabbalistic strictures, was always highly controversial.
Leading decisors openly applied criteria from Kabbalah in their rulings, while others did so only inadvertently, and many denied it any role in normative halakha. A closely related mystical phenomenon is the belief in Magidimsupposed dreamlike apparitions or visions, that may inform those who experience them with certain divine knowledge.
Belief in a future Messiah is central to Orthodox Judaism. According to this doctrine, a king will arise from King David's lineage, and will bring with him signs such as the restoration of the Temple, peace, and universal acceptance of God. Classical Judaism did incorporate a tradition of belief in the resurrection of the dead. They also believed that acts in this world would effect the state of life in the next world. There are other passing references to the afterlife in mishnaic tractates.
A particularly important one in the Berakhot informs that the Jewish belief in the afterlife was established long before the compilation of the Mishnah. It is described as an underworld containing the gathering of the dead with their families.
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But a distinction is made for kings who are said to be greeted by other kings when entering Sheol. The Talmudic discourse expanded on the details of the World to Come. This was to motivate Jewish compliance with their religious codes. The sequence of these events is unclear. A relatively thorough observance of halakha - rather than any theological and doctrinal matters, which are often subject to diverse opinions - is the concrete demarcation line separating Orthodox Jews from other Jewish movements.
As noted both by researchers and communal leaders, the Orthodox subgroups have a sense of commitment towards the Law which is rarely manifest outside the movement, perceiving it as seriously binding.
The halakhalike any jurisprudence, is not a definitive set of rules, but rather an ever-expanding discourse: Its authority is derived from the belief in divine revelation, but interpretation and application are done by the rabbis, who base their mandate on biblical verses such as and thou shalt observe to do according to all that they inform thee.
From ancient to modern times, the rabbinic discourse was wrought with controversy machloket and sages disagreeing upon various points of the law. The Talmud itself is mainly a record of such disputes.
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Traditional belief, maintained by the Orthodox today, regards such disagreement as flowing naturally from the divinity of Jewish Law, which is presumed to potentially contain a solution for any possible predicament. As long as both contesting parties base their arguments according to received hermeneutics and precedents and are driven by sincere faith, both these and those are the words of the Living God this Talmudic statement is originally attributed to a divine proclamation during a dispute between the House of Hillel and House of Shammai.
This plurality of opinion allows decisorsrabbis tasked with determining the legal stance in subjects without precedent, to weigh between a range of options, based on methods derived from earlier authorities. The most basic form of halakhic discourse is the responsa literaturein which rabbis answered questions directed from commoners or other rabbis, thus setting precedent for the next generations. The system's oldest and most basic sources are the Mishna and the two Talmudsto which were added the later commentaries and novellae of the Geonim.
One of the latest and most authoritative codifications is the Shulchan Aruchor "Set Table", which gained a canonical status and became almost synonymous, in popular parlance, with the halakhic system itself - though no later authority accepted it in its entirety for example, all Orthodox Jews don phylacteries in a manner different from the one advocated thereand it was immediately contested or re-interpreted by various commentaries, most prominently the gloss written by Rabbi Moses Isserles named HaMapah.
Halakhic literature continued to expand and evolve, with new authoritative guides being compiled and canonized, until the popular works of the 20th century like the Mishnah Berurah. The most important distinction within halakha is between all laws derived from God's revelation d'Oraita ; and those enacted by human authorities d'Rabananwho are believed traditionally to have been empowered by God to legislate when necessary.
The former are either directly understood, derived in various hermeneutical means or attributed to commandments orally handed down to Moses. The authority to pass measures d'Rabanan is itself subject to debate - for one, Maimonides stated that absolute obedience to rabbinic decrees is stipulated by the verse and thou shalt observewhile Nachmanides argued that such severeness is unfounded - though such enactments are accepted as binding, albeit less than the divine commandments.
A Talmudic maxim states that, when in doubt regarding a matter d'Oraitaone must rule strenuously, and leniently when it concerns d'Rabanan. Many arguments in halakhic literature revolve over whether any certain detail is derived from the former or the latter source, and under which circumstances. Commandments or prohibitions d'Rabananthough less stringent than d'Oraita ones, are an equally important facet of Jewish law. They range from the 2nd century BC establishment of Hanukkahto the bypassing on the Biblical ban on charging interest via the Prozbuland up to the standardization of marital rules by the Chief Rabbinate of Israel which forbade polygamy and levirate marriage even in communities which still practiced those.
Apart from these, a third major component buttressing Orthodox practice and Jewish in general is local or familial custom, Minhag. The development and acceptance of customs as binding, more than disagreements between decisors, is the main factor accounting for the great diversity in matters of practice across geographic or ethnic lines.
While the reverence accorded to Minhag across rabbinic literature is far from uniform - ranging from positions like "a custom may uproot halakha " to wholly dismissive attitudes -  it was generally accepted as binding by the scholars, and more importantly, drew its power from popular adherence and routine.
The most important ct of Minhag is in the disparities between various Jewish ethnic or communal groups, which also each possess a distinctive tradition of halakhic rulings, stemming from the opinions of local rabbis. AshkenazimSephardimTeimanimand others have different prayer ritessomewhat different kosher emphases since the 12th century at least, it is Ashkenazi custom not to consume legumes in Passoverand numerous other points of distinction.
Eating in the Sukkah on Shemini Atzeret   is an area where Minhag varies; likewise, how to accommodate the idea of eating some dairy on Shavuos. Rabbinic leadership, assigned with implementing and interpreting the already accumulated tradition, changed considerably in recent centuries, marking a major difference between Orthodox and pre-modern Judaism.
Since the demise of the Geonim who led the Jewish world up tohalakha was adjudicated locally, and the final arbiter was mostly the communal rabbi, the Mara d'Athra Master of the Area. He was responsible to judicially instruct all members of his community.
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The emancipation and modern means of transport and communication all jointly made this model untenable. These may be either popular chairs of talmudic academiesrenowned decisors and, in the Hasidic world, hereditary rebbe s.
Their influence varies considerably: In conservative Orthodox circles, mainly ultra-Orthodox Haredi ones, rabbis possess strong authority and exercise their leadership often. Bodies such as the Council of Torah SagesCouncil of Torah Luminariesthe Central Rabbinical Congressand the Orthodox Council of Jerusalem are all considered, at least in theory, as the supreme arbiters in their respective communities.
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In the more liberal Orthodox sectors, rabbis are revered and consulted, but rarely exert such direct control. Orthodox Judaism emphasizes practicing rules of kashrutShabbatfamily purityand tefilah daily prayer. Many Orthodox Jews can be identified by their manner of dress and family lifestyle.
Orthodox men and women dress modestly by keeping most of their skin covered. Married women cover their hair, with either scarves tichelsnoodshats, or wigs. Orthodox men are expected to wear a ritual fringe called Tzitzitand the donning of a head-covering for males at all times  is a well-known attribute distinguishing Orthodox Jews.
Many men grow beards, and Haredi men wear black hats with a skullcap underneath and suits. Modern Orthodox Jews are sometimes indistinguishable in their dress from general society, although they, too, wear kippahs and tzitzit; additionally, on Shabbat, Modern Orthodox men wear suits or at least a dress shirt and dress pants, while women wear fancier dresses or blouses.
Orthodox Jews also follow the laws of negiahwhich means touch. Orthodox men and women do not engage in physical contact with those of the opposite sex outside of their spouse, or immediate family members such as parents, grandparents, siblings, children, and grandchildren. Kol Isha  is the prohibition  of a woman's singing voice to a man except as per negiah.
Doorposts have a mezuzah ; separate sinks for meat and dairy have become increasingly common. Orthodox Judaism lacks any central framework or a common, authoritative leadership. It is not a " denomination " in the structural sense, but a variegated spectrum of groups, united in broadly affirming several matters of belief and practice, which also share a consciousness and a common discourse.
Individual rabbis may, and often do, gain respect across boundaries, especially recognized decisorsbut each community eventually obeys or reveres its own immediate leaders for example, the ultra-Orthodox world shares a sense of common identity, yet constitutes several large distinct sub-sections, each including hundreds of independent communities with their own rabbis.
Apart from this inherent plurality, the limits and boundaries of Orthodoxy are also a matter of great controversy. Over the last few years I spent hours and days of reading, researching and interviewing people practicing Judaism religion and Judaism beliefs.
Here I am, an Orthodox Jew sharing with you all my insight and knowledge. I just love everything about Orthodox Jews. From its teachings, culture, lifestyle to every small ritual detail. And I love to share it with YOU! Orthodox Judaism is unique. From one hand living an ancient Jewish lifestyle, and from the other hand mingling with secular society.
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See how they dress and why they dress that way; learn about their family life and moral standards of ethical behavior; see why Orthoox Jewish women cover their hear and dress modest and much more. Just scroll down, choose your topic and start reading.
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